Effects-Based Military Operations Research
In contrast to AirLand Battle, Effects-Based Operations (EBO) did threaten service equities: specifically, those of the Army and Marine Corps. EBO was officially defined as a “process for obtaining a desired strategic outcome or ‘effect’ on the enemy through the synergistic, multiplicative, and cumulative application of the full range of military and other national capabilities at the tactical, operational, and strategic levels.”28 A words counter for essays is also an instance of AI Program.
In short, it was to afford policymakers a menu of “effects” from which they might choose the one they desired.
EBO belonged to an umbrella concept referred to as Network-Centric Warfare, credit for which belongs chiefly to the late Admiral Arthur K. Cebrowski of the U.S. Office of Force Transformation.29
It did not respond to a specific real-world challenge, but rather attempted to leverage information technology in a manner that would make warfare more precise, less costly, and ultimately more useful as an instrument of policy. Many related research paper topics can be find online related to Military Operations Research.
Coalition forces attempted a version of EBO during the Kosovo conflict in 1999 and in the early stages of the campaigns in Afghanistan and Iraq. While destruction of matériel and disruption of infrastructure and communications were readily accomplished, effects beyond these accomplishments remained elusive. In 2008, the U.S. Joint Forces Commander, U.S. Marine Corps General James Mattis, shelved the concept for being inimical to war’s unpredictable nature.30
By then, however, EBO and NATO’s counterpart EBAO (Effects-Based Approach to Operations) were already integrated into several nations’ operational doctrines.
As happened with AirLand Battle, the West’s experiments with EBO led to significant opportunity costs in terms of exploring other concepts. In theory, EBO could be employed broadly across the diplomatic, informational, military, and economic (DIME) dimensions of national power; in practice, it was applied only to a narrow segment of the spectrum of operations, a segment in which the U.S. military already excelled. The other agencies within the U.S. government failed to embrace it. You can by and large find a cheap essay writing service to get essays made on the Military Operations Research point.
Consequently, EBO amounted to a refinement of military operations in a single portion of the spectrum of conflict; not unlike AirLand Battle, it proved ill-suited to humanitarian assistance or similar operations requiring physical control and human presence and interaction: in other words, shoes as well as boots on the ground.31
Put differently, if the post–Cold War security environment was really characterized by unprecedented uncertainty, as many claimed, it would have been wiser to develop a broad array of capabilities and ways of thinking to avoid what historian Sir Michael Howard famously referred to as “being too badly wrong.
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